Malaria is one of the most common infectious tropical diseases and an enormous public health problem. It is a parasitic disease characterized by fever, chills, and anemia caused by malaria parasites spread from one human to another through infected Anopheles mosquitoes bite. Four malaria parasites can infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae.
Malaria remains widespread in 104 countries. While Malaria parasite testing in increasing, most of the cases are suspected cases are still not correctly confirmed.
Malaria can be treated in 2 days, yet it can cause fatal complications if the diagnosis is delayed.
Malaria diagnosis by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on antigen ( HRP-2 /pLDH) detection is recommended by WHO for all patients with suspected malaria.
As per NACO guidelines, All blood units in a blood bank should be tested for malaria parasites using a validated and sensitive antigen test.
ELISA, an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is a screening test used to detect Plasmodium species based on pLDH Antigen in patient whole blood. ELISA tests are more sensitive with Analytical sensitivity of >20 parasites per µl of blood for both P. falciparum (pLDH) and P. vivax (pLDH) and specific since they make use of Enzyme substrate reaction and include washing steps to remove non -specific antibodies present in the patient specimen. In Blood Banks & Labs equipped with ELISA Reader and washer prefer processing a large number of samples in a 96 microwell plate with the turn around time of 2 -3 hours for 90 samples.
Malaria Rapid diagnostic Card tests (RDTs) based on antigen ( HRP-2 /pLDH) detection are visual tests with the user-friendly test procedure, no need for skilled microscopist & equipment, and provide accurate test results within 20 minutes. They are based on lateral immunochromatography sandwich immunoassay, and their performance is validated against well-characterized panels of Malaria parasites as per intended use.
J Mitra & Co. offers both ELISA (Malaria Ag Microlisa) & a wide range of 5 different Rapid Antigen card tests for screening and diagnosis of Malaria parasite based on HRP-2 &/OR pLDH. Antigen.
ELISA and Rapid test kits are indigenously developed, have excellent Analytical and Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and good Precision in test results.
The product performance of Advantage Mal card, Advantage Malaria PAN+PF CARD, Advantage Pan Malaria card, and ADVANTAGE P.F Malaria card have been evaluated using wild and cultured parasite panels by WHO with > 90 % Panel detection score & > 99 % Specificity.
Therefore RDT is the ideal choice for a small setup, having less patient load and is well suited for resource-limited settings. Furthermore, they offer a realistic, practical approach as POCT tests are available near the patient with an analytical sensitivity of >100 parasites/μl for P. falciparum and P.vivax diagnosis.
Accurate and early diagnosis is essential for effective management of the disease and robust malaria surveillance. Therefore, a choice between ELISA and RAPID Tests shall be appropriately made!!