D-Dimer is a protein that is produced after blood clotting and subsequent breakdown of blood clots. Whenever there is damage to any body part or bleeding, intrinsic or extrinsic coagulation pathways are activated, resulting in the formation of a blood clot at the site.
Since D-dimer is the degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, its elevated levels reflect ongoing activation of the hemostatic and thrombolytic system.
The normal level of D-Dimer in Human blood is <0.5 mg/L. Therefore, the patient test results in the normal range indicate that the person is not suffering from any disease or conditions which may lead to abnormal clot formation & hence no risk of thrombosis.
D-Dimer levels of more than 0.5 mg/L mean positive test result for D-Dimer. D-dimer level increases naturally with age & high levels of D-dimer are usually present in blood in case of major clot like with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), usually in legs and thighs, Pulmonary embolism ( clots in Lungs ), or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (small clots in vessels).
High levels of D-Dimer indicate the risk of abnormal blood clotting, which can lead to life-threatening conditions and severe problems like Stroke, Cardiac arrest, and death.
There are other conditions (other than thrombosis) in which elevated D-Dimer levels are present: Cancer, Pregnancy, liver disease, Heart disease, after surgery, infections & inflammation. Therefore doctors may suggest imaging tests; Ultrasound, CT angiography, or ventilation-perfusion scans (as applicable) to confirm clotting disorder.
Very high plasma D-dimer levels of >15,000 ng/mL indicate VTE (Venous thromboembolism), cancer, and pneumonia, leading to increased mortality.
High levels of D-dimer in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection correlate with disease severity and are considered a reliable prognostic marker for better patient management.
There are various techniques available for Quantitative determination of D-Dimer inpatient citrate plasma; Turbidimetry, ELISA /CLIA, and FIA (Fluorescence immunoassay ) analyzer.
J Mitra & Co. offers ELISA & Rapid (based on Fluorescence immunoassay) tests to diagnose D-Dimer in Human Plasma. Both the products are highly specific and have user-friendly test procedures, excellent accuracy with an Accuracy coefficient (R2) of >0.99, and good Precision in test results.